After Belgium’s occupation by the Germans an anti-German Underground gradually began to get organized in that Country, and due to Germany’s occupation policy many joined it. Jews played a prominent role in the Underground’s activities from the outset. In late 1941, a Unit commanded by Jacob Gutfreind was already in operation, carrying out sabotage missions on various targets, such as trains and factories, and even killing many Germans and Belgian collaborators. In the year 1942, during the period when Jews’ status in Belgium was deteriorating, a Jewish Underground Movement, named “The Committee for Jewish Defense” (CJD), was also established, to which all of the political factions belonged. Later on it joined the National Belgian Resistance Movement. The CJD helped Jews avoid reporting for deportation and engaged in forging documents, in smugglings, and it even acted with force against Belgian Authorities that collaborated with the Nazis. In addition, many Jews organized escape operations from the deportation trains.
Approximately 500 Jews were active in the Underground. In one incident that took place in April, 1943, members of the Jewish Underground conducted a Battle against a German Force. Many Germans died while the Jewish Fighters got away from the area without any casualties. One Unit that was formed within the framework of the Belgian Underground was the “Ninth Jewish Brigade”. In September, 1944, several hundred Jewish Fighters joined it and took part in the Battles for the liberation of Belgium.